The reign of Charles II saw a rise of colonisation and trade in commodities such as tobacco, sugar and gold across India, the East Indies, North America and Africa. The dowry Charles received from his marriage to Catherine of Braganza, the king of Portugal’s sister, included ports in Africa as well as Bombay in India. In North America, Charles granted various territories including Pennsylvania and Carolina to his supporters and in 1664, the British captured the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and renamed it New York. This period also saw the establishment of trading companies such as the Royal African Company (1660) and Hudson’s Bay Company (1670). The power of the East India Company was also strengthened.
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